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氢氧化钠制备方法

  SHIYANSHIZHIFA:

  钠盐与氧化钙反应可以用一些碳酸氢钠(小苏打)和一些氧化钙(生石灰)。把生石灰放于水中,反应后变为石灰浆(氢氧化钙溶液、熟石灰),把碳酸氢钠(或碳酸钠)的固体颗粒(浓溶液也行)加入石灰浆中,为保证产物氢氧化钠的纯度,需使石灰浆过。原因:参考氢氧化钙和碳酸钠的溶解度。搅拌加快其反应,待其反应一会儿后,静置片刻,随着碳酸钙的沉淀,上层清液就是氢氧化钠溶液,小心倒出即可。(切记倒出后称量时不能放在滤纸上!)CaO + H₂O =Ca(OH)₂NaHCO₃+ Ca(OH)₂=CaCO₃↓+ NaOH + H₂O(推荐)Ca(OH)₂+Na₂CO₃ =CaCO₃↓+2NaOH  [6] [2] 钠与水反应取一块金属钠,擦去表面煤油,刮去表面氧化层,放入盛有水的烧杯中。2Na+2H₂O=2NaOH+H₂↑现象:(浮、熔、游、响)浮:钠浮在水面上;熔:钠熔化成小球;游:钠在水面上游动,因为有氢气生成;响:钠咝咝作响,因为有氢气生成 。

  GONGYEZHIFA:

  GONGYESHANGSHENGCHANSHAOJIANDEFANGFAYOUKEHUAFA、DIANJIEFAHELIZIJIAOHUANMOFASANZHONG。KEHUAFAJIANGCHUNJIAN、SHIHUIFENBIEJINGHUAJIANZHICHENGCHUNJIANRONGYE、SHIHUIZHICHENGSHIHUIRU,YU99~101℃JINXINGKEHUAFANYING,KEHUAYEJINGCHENGQING、ZHENGFANONGSUOZHI40%YISHANG,ZHIDEYETISHAOJIAN。JIANGNONGSUOYEJINYIBUAONONGGUHUA,ZHIDEGUTISHAOJIANCHENGPIN。KEHUANIYONGSHUIXIDI,XISHUIYONGYUHUAJIAN。 [12] Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2= 2NaOH+CaCO3↓ GEMODIANJIEFAJIANGYUANYANHUAYANHOUJIARUCHUNJIAN、SHAOJIAN、LVHUABEIJINGZHIJICHUQUGAI、MEI、LIUSUANGENLIZIDENGZAZHI,ZAIYUCHENGQINGCAOZHONGJIARUJUBINGXISUANNAHUOKEHUAFUPIYIJIASUCHENDIAN,SHALVHOUJIARUYANSUANZHONGHE,YANSHUIJINGYUREHOUSONGQUDIANJIE,DIANJIEYEJINGYURE、ZHENGFA、FENYAN、LENGQUE,ZHIDEYETISHAOJIAN,JINYIBUAONONGJIDEGUTISHAOJIANCHENGPIN。YANNIXISHUIYONGYUHUAYAN。 [13] 2NaCl+2H2O[DIANJIE] = 2NaOH+Cl2↑+H2↑ LIZIJIAOHUANMOFAJIANGYUANYANHUAYANHOUANCHUANTONGDEBANFAJINXINGYANSHUIJINGZHI,BAYICIJINGYANSHUIJINGWEIKONGSHAOJIETANSUGUANSHIGUOLVQIJINXINGGUOLVHOU,ZAIJINGSHIHELIZIJIAOHUANSHUZHITAJINXINGERCIJINGZHI,SHIYANSHUIZHONGGAI、MEIHANLIANGJIANGDAO0.002%YIXIA,JIANGERCIJINGZHIYANSHUIDIANJIE,YUYANGJISHISHENGCHENGLVQI,YANGJISHIYANSHUIZHONGDENa+TONGGUOLIZIMOJINRUYINJISHIYUYINJISHIDEOHSHENGCHENGQINGYANGHUANA,H+ZHIJIEZAIYINJISHANGFANGDIANSHENGCHENGQINGQI。DIANJIEGUOCHENGZHONGXIANGYANGJISHIJIARUSHILIANGDEGAOCHUNDUYANSUANYIZHONGHEFANQIANDEOH-,YINJISHIZHONGYINGJIARUSUOXUCHUNSHUI。ZAIYINJISHISHENGCHENGDEGAOCHUNSHAOJIANNONGDUWEI30%~32%(ZHILIANG),KEYIZHIJIEZUOWEIYEJIANCHANPIN,YEKEYIJINYIBUAONONG,ZHIDEGUTISHAOJIANCHENGPIN。 [13] 2NaCl+2H₂O= 2NaOH+H₂↑+Cl₂↑


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